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Statistical multiplexing techniques essentially use network resources in a more efficient way, Q - Describe the difference between SVCs and PVCs. Two different connections can be assigned the same value within the same Frame Relay WAN-one on each side of the virtual connection. The difference in keepalive intervals ensures proper synchronization between the Cisco server and the Frame Relay switch. interface serial 3 frame-relay keepalive 8 Related Commands A dagger (+) indicates that Use the show running-config privileged exec command on local and remote routers to view the router configuration.

Figure 15-15: LMI Frame Format (Click image for larger view in a new window) Table 15-8 presents a description of each LMI field. Frame Relay typically is implemented on reliable network media, so data integrity is not sacrificed because flow control can be left to higher-layer protocols. Use the frame-relay lmi-n391dte command to set the N391 full-status polling counter. Earlier WAN protocols such as X.25 were developed when analog transmission systems and copper media were predominant.

Table18-3 Frame Relay: Cannot ping End to End Possible Problem Solution Split horizon problem In a hub-and-spoke Frame Relay environment, you must configure subinterfaces to avoid problems with split horizon. Command Mode EXEC Sample Display The following is sample output from the show frame-relay traffic command: Router# show frame-relay traffic Frame Relay statistics: ARP requests sent 14, ARP replies sent 0 Enter no arguments to obtain statistics about all Frame Relay interfaces. The LMI type must be written into NVRAM so that the next time the router powers up, LMI autosense will be inactive.

Virtual circuit status messages— Provide communication and synchronization between FRADs and the network service provider switches. To disable keepalives on networks that do not utilize LMI, use the no keepalive interface configuration command. The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) signaling protocol is proposed as the means by which DTE and DCE can communicate to establish, terminate, and manage SVCs dynamically. LMI Status Messages The LMI virtual circuit status messages provide communication and synchronization between Frame Relay DTE and DCE devices.

frame-relay lmi-n392dte thresholdno frame-relay lmi-n392dte threshold Syntax Description threshold Error threshold value. Configuring Frame Relay Frame Relay is configured on the Cisco router via the text-based Cisco IOS Command Line Interface (CLI). Figure 10-8. Once the network has established a connection, the edge node of the Frame Relay network must monitor the connection's traffic flow to ensure that the actual usage of network resources does

in BECN pkts Number of packets received with the BECN bit set. out bytes Number of bytes sent. Command Mode Interface configuration Examples The following example configures a static route that allows packets in DLCI 100 and transmits packets out over DLCI 200 on interface serial 2: frame-relay route Today, DECnet and OSI are the only higher-layer protocols that implement these capabilities.

Some LMI extensions are referred to as "common" and are expected to be implemented by everyone who adopts the specification. show frame-relay traffic Syntax Description This command has no arguments or keywords. Congestion control[edit] The Frame Relay network uses a simplified protocol at each switching node. Information in status messages include all or some of the following: New -- Used if a new DLCI connection has been configured Active -- Used to indicate whether the virtual circuit

In 1990, Cisco Systems, StrataCom, Northern Telecom, and Digital Equipment Corporation developed a set of Frame Relay enhancements called the Local Management Interface (LMI). The physical component defines the mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural specifications for the connection between the devices. This value is computed by the source device and verified by the receiver to ensure integrity of transmission. The broadcast queue has priority when transmitting at a rate below the configured maximum, and hence has a guaranteed minimum bandwidth allocation.

Transport layer TCP UDP SCTP DCCP SPX 3. encapsulation frame-relay ietf Use to specify Frame Relay as the encapsulation method for the interface. Cisco. cisco (Optional) Cisco encapsulation method.

Invalid Prot Disc Number of received LMI messages with invalid protocol discriminator. dte (Optional) Router is connected to a Frame Relay network. Acceptable value is a positive integer in the range 1 through 10. Num Status Enq.

Status Message: Responds to status-inquiry messages. This is implemented as shown in Figure 18-4. Your cache administrator is webmaster. Use the no frame-relay lmi-type command to return to the default LMI type.

Sample Display Using CLNS The following is sample output for the show frame-relay map command when CLNS is enabled: Router# show frame-relay map Serial0 (up): CLNS dlci 100(0x64,0x1840), static, broadcast, CISCO, The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network, which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN. For example, for a T3-Frame interface use slot/port.subinterface ; for a channelized T1/channelized E1 interface use slot/port.channel-group.subinterface. Its designers aimed to enable a packet-switched network to transport over circuit-switched technology.

If the DLCI is incorrect, use the no frame-relay map interface-dlci command to delete the incorrect DLCI number entry under the interface. Idle - The connection between DTE devices is still active, but no data is transferred. Virtual circuit status messages prevent the sending of data into black holes--that is, over PVCs that no longer exist. •Multicasting (optional)--Allows a sender to transmit a single frame but have it It allows the network to enforce the end user's information rate and discard information when the subscribed access rate is exceeded.

With the advent of Ethernet over fiber optics, MPLS, VPN and dedicated broadband services such as cable modem and DSL, the end may loom for the Frame Relay protocol and encapsulation.[speculation?] The address area, which is 2 bytes in length, is comprised of 10 bits representing the actual circuit identifier and 6 bits of fields related to congestion management. SaveDiggDel.icio.usPrintEmail Chapter Information Contents Configuring Frame Relay Enabling Frame Relay Encapsulation Configuring the LMI Type on a Frame Relay Interface Configuring Static and Dynamic DLCI to Network Layer Address Mapping Configuring All rights reserved.

Although the actual path taken through the network may vary from time to time, the beginning and end of the circuit do not change. LMI virtual circuit status messages provide communication and synchronization between Frame Relay DTE and DCE devices. Frame Relay provides an industry-standard encapsulation, utilizing the strengths of high-speed, packet-switched technology able to service multiple virtual circuits and protocols between connected devices, such as two routers.