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error-resilient video coding in the is0 mpeg-4 standard Arkansaw, Wisconsin

If any subsequent video packetsare lost before resynchronization, those packets are replaced byskipped macroblocks as well. Fig. 10 shows the organization of thedata in a packet. In this scenario, the combined use of traditional channelcoding techniques and error resilience tools reduces the errorresilience overhead while maintaining the same error resilienceefficiency. When an error occurs, all informationbeing decoded is discarded until the next valid restart markeris reached.

Due to its predictive nature, error accumulates cumulatively, as exact prediction is not possible. Beyond FBA: the BBA specifications In a recent work, published as ISO/IEC 14496-16, the SNHC working group, extended the FBA concepts and added a new tool called Bone-based Animation (BBA) that The remote manipulation of a face model in a terminal with FAPs can accomplish lifelike visual scenes of the speaker in real-time without sending pictorial or video details of face imagery The challenge of robust transmission is to protect the compressed image/video data against hostile channel conditions while bringing little impact on bandwidth efficiency.

First” informa-tion of the next packet to associate the following data to its cor-rect position in the wavelet transform domain. The advantage of these code wordsis that when the decoder detects an error while decoding thebit-stream in the forward direction, the decoder can reach thenext resynchronization marker and decodes the bit-stream Theinput image is first transformed using a wavelet transform. The coded representation allows for content-based access for digital storage media, digital video communication, and other applications.

A face and body object is animated by a stream of face and body animation parameters (FBA) encoded for low-bandwidth transmission in broadcast (one-to-many) or dedicated interactive (point-to-point) communications. The resynchronization markers of JPEGare placed at the boundaries of everyblock, where ischosen at encoding time. Documents Authors Tables Log in Sign up MetaCart Donate Documents: Advanced Search Include Citations Authors: Advanced Search Include Citations | Disambiguate Tables: Error-Resilient Video Coding in the IS0 MPEG-4 Standard Cached For thisreason, the adopted error resilience tools are meant to be usedtogether with, and not in place of, traditional technologies, suchas channel coding, which are outside the scope of the two

Institutional Sign In By Topic Aerospace Bioengineering Communication, Networking & Broadcasting Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems Computing & Processing Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas Engineering Profession Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics General Support for progressive transmission: 3D mesh models can be quite complex, with millions of polygons. These are combinations of tools (basic coding methods like B VOPs, interlaced coding etc.) necessary to support a selected set of applications. The MBM is computed from the motionVLC tables using the search program described above such thatthe word is Hamming distance 1 from any possible valid com-bination of the motion VLC tables.

Details on how data duplicationis implemented in MPEG-4 are presented in Section IV-B-4.C. It can independently and com-pletely process (i.e., generate the corresponding bit-stream)all the coefficients contained in a subband block. They are powerful tools that can beapplied at the source coding stage (as opposed to the channelcoding stage) of an image/video communication system.This paper provides an overview of the error-resilient ap-proaches To address these problems, many 3-D mesh compression algorithms have been proposed by increasing the coding efficiency for 3D models.  As one of the well-known conventional algorithms, three-dimensional mesh coding (3DMC)

As shown in Fig. 16, only data in the shaded area arediscarded.Note that if RVLC’s arenot used, all thedata betweenthe two resynchronization markers will be discarded.By proper use of training video An example is the mapping of text in front of a moving video object where the text moves coherently with the object. The World Wide Web is be-coming a pervasive means for disseminating multimedia data(including image, video, text, and audio), and the mobile com-munications are emerging from primarily voice-based servicestoward data services. There are tools that address both the band-limited nature and error resiliency aspects of access over wireless networks.

Subscribe Personal Sign In Create Account IEEE Account Change Username/Password Update Address Purchase Details Payment Options Order History View Purchased Documents Profile Information Communications Preferences Profession and Education Technical Interests Need Therefore, after a certain interval, it is required to refresh the prediction model to stop error propagation in subsequent frames. Data partitioning allows to separate the motion data (for which a loss would be quite critical, as the reconstructed image may appear severely geometrically distorted otherwise) from the less important texture For example, predictive codingand variable length coding areable to provide high compressionefficiency but are not resilient to such errors.

An effec-tive resynchronization tool makes error recovery and conceal-ment easier.One approach to resynchronization, referred to as the packetapproach, is a spatial resynchronization approach where ablock-based coder inserts the resynchronization markers to Encoder block diagram of JPEG-2000 verification model.The transform coefficients are quantized using either a uni-form deadzone scalar quantizer (SQ) or a trellis coded quan-tizer (TCQ). Bit-stream components for each macroblock within the video packet.Fig. 13. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to fix Group of Picture (GOP) size adaptively depending on the scene content.

Then, only the texture part of all the macroblocks inthe current packet is discarded. References [1]       MPEG SNHC Homepage, http://www.sait.samsung.co.kr/snhc. [2]       ISO/IEC 14772-1, “The Virtual Reality Modeling Language,” 1997. JPEG uses a block-baseddiscrete cosine transform and a variable length coder (Huffmanor arithmetic coder). One solution is to retransmit the cor-rupted data.

Depending on the viewing distance, the user may not need million-triangle accuracy, but may be satisfied with hundreds of triangles. Walsh and Mikael Bourges-Sevenier, MPEG-4 Jump-Start, Prentice Hall, 2002. [8]       Craig Gotsman, Stefan Gumhold, and Leif Kobbelt, “Simplification and Compression of 3D Meshes.” Tutorials on Multiresolution in Geometric Modelling, A. The article begins with a description of the general problems in robust wireless video transmission. The erroris detected in several ways (checking if the number of units de-coded corresponds to “U.

The performance is expressed in terms of averagePSNR. The composition of specific backgrounds, face and body 2D/3D meshes, texture attribution of the mesh, etc. MPEG-4 is capable of coding both conven-tionalrectangular video as well as arbitrarily shaped 2-D objectsina video scene.The basic unitof coding of theMPEG-4 naturalvideo coder is the video object plane (VOP). Last), are the absolute num-bers of the first and last coding unit of the current packet.

Hence, effective coverage of the resynchronizationmarker is reduced as compared to MPEG-4. An example of the latter case is,in the video frame case, when the error propagation causes thevideo frame header to be decoded as part of the previous framedata. Theerror resilience efficiency is maintained by using the error re-silience tools to take care of such residue errors. In single and multiple quantizer modes [31],the quantization is explicit, whereas in bilevel quantizer mode[19], the quantization is implicit.

Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Skip to Main Content IEEE.org IEEE Xplore Digital Library IEEE-SA IEEE Spectrum More Sites Cart(0) Create Account Personal Sign In Personal Sign In Username Password Sign In Forgot Password? Similar to the error resilience toolsdiscussed above, the performance of an error concealmenpstrategy depends on the resynchronization scheme and itsability to effectively localize the error. This methodassumes that all the wavelet coefficients within a block areavailable at once.

The hierarchical datastructure has been adopted in the resynchronization approach.To use the hierarchical data structure in the resynchronizationapproach, we have introduced a data partitioning scheme thatsegments the bit-stream into subbands, bit-planes, A video object relates to the syntax and semantics of a Video Object Plane (VOP), which in this relates to a rectangular-plane frame area.