any conscious bias in the selection of population items). Block Sampling involves selecting items from the population in contiguous groups (or blocks). Purposive or Directed Sampling involves selecting items from the A projected population misstatement is calculated based on the sample results and compared to the tolerable misstatement. When using either statistical or non-statistical sampling methods, auditors should design and select an audit sample, perform audit procedures thereon and evaluate sample results so as to provide sufficient appropriate audit Acceptable risk of over reliance Higher acceptable risk of over reliance Lower acceptable risk of over reliance d.

For a sample to be representative of the population, all items in the population are required to have an equal or known probability of being selected. 25. Sampling units – Are individual items that make up the population. ii. Please turn on JavaScript and try again.

Your cache administrator is webmaster. Looking through your sample, you see that 3 of the 75 records aren't supported by a purchase order. E.g. MUS gives a conclusion based on monetary amounts.

Why not share! When using attribute sampling, to make sure your sample is representative of the whole, you have to add the sampling risk of 2 percent to the 4 percent population error rate. Factors affecting the sample size are set out in the following two tables. Analyze Exceptions/Misstatements Regardless of whether a statistical or non-statistical approach is used to evaluate sample results, the auditor needs to consider the nature and cause of every observed exception or

Sample size 11. Preliminary assessment of control risk Higher preliminary assessment of control risk (1) Lower preliminary assessment of control risk b. Your firm will have field procedures in place to guide you in choosing between the two options. The projected population misstatement is computed by dividing the sample misstatement by the dollar value of the sample and multiplying this amount by the dollar value of the population.

You can keep your great finds in clipboards organized around topics. Therefore, if they are expected, a larger sample size is required. When determining sample sizes, auditors should consider sampling risk, the tolerable error and the expected error. (SAS 430.3) 12. Comment on this article Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.

Sampling Decision tree Judgmental - Proportion- Estimation (Non-statistical) Sampling for Discovery Attributes sampling Acceptance sampling Sampling Random Estimation sampling of (Statistical) - Value -Variables Monetary unit sampling. Sampling risk for substantive procedures is one form of detection risk, which is the risk that the auditors' procedures do not detect a misstatement that exists in an account balance or This risk is inversely related to sample size. Risk of incorrect rejection represents the risk that the auditor concludes that a material misstatement exists when in fact a material misstatement does Please turn on JavaScript and try again.

The risk of assessing control risk too high represents the risk that an audit sample supports the conclusion that the design and operation of an internal control is not effective when If the upper deviation rate is less than the auditor's tolerable rate, the auditor would consider the control effective. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Link Public clipboards featuring this slide × No public clipboards found for this slide × Save the most important slides with Clipping Clipping is a handy Stratification enables auditors to direct audit efforts towards the items which, for example, contain the greatest potential monetary error.

Sako Mayrick, 2008 Page 4 5. The greater the reliance on the results, the lower the sampling risk auditors are willing to accept and the greater the sample size needs to be. 18. The R – factor is taken from statistical tables such as this one: - Confidence Risk R- factors R-factor one Level/assurance level No. Evaluation of MUS results Where no errors are formed in the sample, then the “Prevision” achieved will be that predicted in terms of “tolerable errors” by the auditors before the test

in above example: suppose that there are three errors of over-statements. Alternatively, if the upper deviation rate exceeds the auditor's tolerable rate, the auditor would consider the control ineffective. This may result in: (a) ‘The risk of incorrect rejection’ (also called Alpha risk) which arises when the sample indicates a higher level of errors than is actually the case. A lower risk of incorrect acceptance is used when more costly or difficult evidence will be required if expanded testing is needed.

It requires the use of a probabilistic sample selection method (random or systematic sampling). The risk of assessing control risk too low and the risk of incorrect acceptance are concerned with the effectiveness of audit tests while the risk of assessing control risk too high This demonstrates one advantage of mus in that all items larger than the sampling internal will be selected. Smaller sample sizes are justified when the population is expected to be error free. 22.

Auditors project the error results of the sample to the population from which the sample was selected in order to form a conclusion about the possible level of error in the This rate is directly related to sample size. Tolerable Deviation Rate represents the highest deviation rate the auditor could accept and still conclude that the design and operation of an internal The unadjusted upper and lower limits on misstatement are calculated using the following formula: The taintings are used in order of highest to lowest. The risk of incorrect rejection represents the risk that an audit sample supports the conclusion that a material misstatement exists when in fact a material misstatement does not exist.

Each must have an unbiased chance of selection to ensure the final sample is representative of the population. An auditor selects a certain number of records to estimate how many times a certain feature will show up in a population. It does this by defining each Shs.1 of the population as a sampling unit of Shs.1. This rate is inversely related to sample size. Sample results are evaluated by comparing the computed maximum population deviation rate to the tolerable deviation rate.

Thus auditor having selected a random starting point in (say) a list of ledger balances needs to select every 333,330rd sampling unit encountered, as the population is cumulatively added from zero Systematic selection, which involves selecting items using a constant interval between selections, the first interval having a random start. The factors considered when determining sample size for substantive tests are: Risk of incorrect acceptance represents the risk that the auditor concludes that a material misstatement does not exist when in Examples of some factors affecting sample size are contained in the Appendix.

Etc. These sample determination tables require the auditor to establish three factors: Risk of assessing control risk too low represents the risk that the auditor concludes that the design and operation of The level of acceptable sampling risk depends upon the importance of the results of the audit procedure involving sampling to the auditors' conclusions. bybagarza 16230views Share SlideShare Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Email Email sent successfully!

In the sales order example, the upper deviation rate(9 percent) exceeds the auditor's tolerable rate (6 percent). Random selection requires the use of random number tables or computer programs to guarantee that each population item has an equal chance of selection. Systematic Sampling involves selecting every kth item That decision is based on what figures you set for tolerable error, expected error, sampling risk, and confidence level. That's good news for you, because it's below the tolerable error rate of 7 percent.

It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Therefore, the auditor would advise management not to rely on the control, concluding with 95 percent certainty that the rate of missed credit approvals exceeds the tolerable rate.All audit sampling plans Shs. The lower the desired control risk assessment the lower the needed risk of assessing control risk too low.

The use of audit sampling, on all audit assignments, offers innumerable benefits to all auditors. Your cache administrator is webmaster. The original assessments may need to be revised upward if misstatements are observed. Examples of sources of non-sampling risk include: • Failure to investigate significant fluctuations in relationships when placing reliance on analytical procedures; and Sako Mayrick, 2008 Page 1 2.