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ZERO_DIVIDE 01476 1476 It is raised when an attempt is made to divide a number by zero. You can define your own exceptions in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package. Design your programs to work when the database is not in the state you expect. Table 11-3 PL/SQL Predefined Exceptions Exception Name Error Code ACCESS_INTO_NULL -6530 CASE_NOT_FOUND -6592 COLLECTION_IS_NULL -6531 CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN -6511 DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX -1 INVALID_CURSOR -1001 INVALID_NUMBER -1722 LOGIN_DENIED -1017 NO_DATA_FOUND +100 NO_DATA_NEEDED -6548 NOT_LOGGED_ON -1012

change due to INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements). In such cases, you must use dot notation to specify the predefined exception, as follows: EXCEPTION WHEN invalid_number OR STANDARD.INVALID_NUMBER THEN -- handle the error END; How PL/SQL Exceptions Are Raised Handle an exception by trapping it with a handler or propagating it to the calling environment. DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX Your program attempts to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index.

NOT_LOGGED_ON 01012 -1012 It is raised when a database call is issued without being connected to the database. Without exception handling, every time you issue a command, you must check for execution errors: BEGIN SELECT ... -- check for 'no data found' error SELECT ... -- check for 'no Topics Exception Categories Advantages of Exception Handlers Guidelines for Avoiding and Handling Exceptions Exception Categories The exception categories are: Internally defined The runtime system raises internally defined exceptions implicitly (automatically). Now consider a TimesTen example where the exception is not handled, again run with autocommit disabled: create table mytable (num int not null primary key); set serveroutput on insert into mytable

If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception, PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. The syntax for declaring an exception is: DECLARE my-exception EXCEPTION; Example: The following example illustrates the concept. procedure_that_performs_select(); ... When an error occurs, an exception is raised.

Using DBMS_WARNING Package If you are writing PL/SQL subprograms in a development environment that compiles them, you can control PL/SQL warning messages by invoking subprograms in the DBMS_WARNING package. Consider using a cursor.'); > END; > / Your SELECT statement retrieved multiple rows. Finally, the example recompiles the procedure, and the compiler generates a warning about the unreachable code. In the United States is racial, ethnic, or national preference an acceptable hiring practice for departments or companies in some situations?

PL/SQL Exception message consists of three parts. 1) Type of Exception 2) An Error Code 3) A message By Handling the exceptions we can ensure a PL/SQL block does not exit For user-defined exceptions, SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message: User-Defined Exception. Also, PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. VALUE_ERROR ORA-06502 -6502 An arithmetic, conversion, truncation, or size constraint error occurred.

PL/SQL Warning Categories PL/SQL warning messages are divided into categories, so that you can suppress or display groups of similar warnings during compilation. Example 11-19 Exception Raised in Exception Handler is Handled by Enclosing Block CREATE PROCEDURE print_reciprocal (n NUMBER) AUTHID DEFINER IS BEGIN BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(1/n); EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Error in inner block:'); Defining Your Own PL/SQL Exceptions PL/SQL lets you define exceptions of your own. Declaring PL/SQL Exceptions Exceptions can be declared only in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package.

Example 11-1 calculates a price-to-earnings ratio for a company. The built-in parameter SELF points to the object, and is always the first parameter passed to a MEMBER method. STORAGE_ERROR PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory has been INVALID_CURSOR Your program attempts an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. Get each piece out for insertion.

In order to use StoreStacks, an error must have been handled. If no exception has been raised, SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message: ORA-0000: normal, successful completion. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. However, when an exception is raised inside a cursor FOR loop, the cursor is closed implicitly before the handler is invoked.

Example 4-3 Using the RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR procedure This example attempts to delete from the employees table where last_name=Patterson. Consider the following example: BEGIN ... The developer raises the exception explicitly. You can also set it for a single compilation by including it as part of the ALTER PROCEDURE statement.

For example: EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN INSERT INTO ... -- might raise DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ... -- cannot catch the exception END; Branching to or from an Exception Handler A But the enclosing block cannot reference the name PAST_DUE, because the scope where it was declared no longer exists. A cursor must be closed before it can be reopened. For more information about PL/SQL compilation parameters, see PL/SQL Units and Compilation Parameters.

There are two types of exceptions: System-defined exceptions User-defined exceptions Syntax for Exception Handling The General Syntax for exception handling is as follows. If you want execution to resume with the INSERT statement that follows the SELECT INTO statement, then put the SELECT INTO statement in an inner block with its own ZERO_DIVIDE exception Using the above example we can display a error message using RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR. Special discounts should be provided.

These Exceptions have a code and an associated message. Because the exception propagates immediately to the host environment, the exception handler does not handle it. ORA-06511 INVALID_CURSOR When you perform an invalid operation on a cursor like closing a cursor, fetch data from a cursor that is not opened. Assume the same package specification shown there, which declares the procedures and functions hire_employee, remove_employee, and num_above_salary.

Otherwise, you can handle them only with OTHERS exception handlers. For example, if you declare an exception named invalid_number and then PL/SQL raises the predefined exception INVALID_NUMBER internally, a handler written for INVALID_NUMBER will not catch the internal exception. You can write handlers for predefined exceptions using the names in the following list: Exception Oracle Error SQLCODE Value ACCESS_INTO_NULL ORA-06530 -6530 CASE_NOT_FOUND ORA-06592 -6592 COLLECTION_IS_NULL ORA-06531 -6531 CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN ORA-06511 -6511 SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT Your program references a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection.

NOT_LOGGED_ON 01012 -1012 A program issues a database call without being connected to the database. Also, it can use the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT to map specific error numbers returned by raise_application_error to exceptions of its own, as the following Pro*C example shows: EXEC SQL EXECUTE /* Execute That is, normal execution stops and control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. v_End := INSTR(v_ErrorStack, v_NewLine, v_Index); -- The error is between the current index and the newline v_Error := SUBSTR(v_ErrorStack, v_Index, v_End - v_Index); -- Skip over the current

PL/SQL declares predefined exceptions globally in package STANDARD. For example, you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block, then log the error in an enclosing block. In the sub-block, before the transaction starts, mark a savepoint. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Can''t handle an exception in a declaration.'); END; / Handlers in the current block cannot catch the raised exception because an exception raised in a declaration propagates immediately to the

There are two ways to handle unnamed sysyem exceptions: 1. INVALID_CURSOR 01001 -1001 A program attempts a cursor operation that is not allowed, such as closing an unopened cursor. Oracle Database rolls back to the beginning of the anonymous block. Thus, the RAISE statement and the WHEN clause refer to different exceptions.

An exception raised inside a handler propagates immediately to the enclosing block, which is searched to find a handler for this new exception. To invoke RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR, use this syntax: RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (error_code, message[, {TRUE | FALSE}]); You must have assigned error_code to the user-defined exception with the EXCEPTION_INIT pragma.