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BACKSPACE Statement If the program needs to re-read only the most recently read (or written) record, then the BACKSPACE statement can be used. A file such as the source program or a set of I/O data is normally formatted, which means it consists of an ordered set of character strings separated by an end The iostat variable will receive 0 is the read is successful, and a non-zero error code if it failed (at end of file, file is not open, etc.) Technically, the iostat After we're done reading or writing, it must be closed.

EXIST The variable is set to .TRUE. IOSTAT After the CLOSE statement has been executed, the specified variable will contain a status value. Note that if the user enters the (system-dependent) end-of-file character during the READ statement, control will transfer to a statement labelled 999. Previous Page Next Page Table of Contents The Queen's University of Belfast Parallel Computer Centre [Next] [Previous] [Top] 9 File-based Input and Output In the previous modules all input and output

Otherwise, it will contain a non-zero error code that indicates why the file could not be opened. (Does not exist, no permission, etc.) Optional tags: action: String 'read': Open for reading This specifier cannot be used in the inquirebyunit statement. All unit numbers not available for use are not valid; that is, they do not exist.

Valid unit numbers are all nonnegative numbers except 100 through 102. The label of a statement within the same program unit.

Otherwise, it will be a non-zero value whose meaning is dependent on the operating system. The name of a character variable or array element within the same program unit. DIRECT The variable returns 'YES' if the file can be connected for direct I/O, 'NO' if it can't, and 'UNKNOWN' if the system can't tell. It is YES if the formatted input record is to be padded with blanks and NO otherwise.

This does not tell you WHICH type of error occurred. It then begins a new count and repeats the procedure until all divisors are found. Example: READ(10,140,err=225) a, b, c 140 format(f7.2,2x,f10.5,3x,e12.7) When a read error is encountered, the program jumps to line 225 and continues executing the program from there. DELIM=del where del may be 'APOSTROPHE' or 'QUOTE' or 'NONE' indicating which character used when delimiting character expressions in list-directed or NAMELIST output.

The READ statement causes the program to PAUSE and allow you to enter values. open on two units open(file="foo", & ! They are: END = label Specifies a label to branch (jump) to if an END-OF-FILE (EOF) is reached (READing past the end of file). There are wonderful options of using PRINT (format specification), but it only goes to the screen! 2.

OPEN ([UNIT=] u, slist) Parameter Description UNIT Unit number slist The specifiers list slist can include one or more of the following FILE = fin or alternativly NAME = fin ACCESS TMPDIR: FORTRAN programs normally put scratch files in the current working directory. STATUS This is used to specify whether the file should be kept or deleted after being closed. 'KEEP' (the file should be kept after closing) or 'DELETE' (the file should be This is the default.

Possible values are: READ, WRITE, and READWRITE. As for input, list-directed formatting allows free-format entry for numerical data. Then follow the actual data which the program wrote: the two 32-bit integers in little-endian byte order, and the IEEE754 double-precision (64-bit) number. NUNIT, NUNIT+I an asterisk * denoting the default unit the name of an internal file A statement such as a READ, WRITE or OPEN is directed to use a particular

The following table lists the standard specifiers in FORTRAN77. CHARACTER*40 TITLE REAL STIME 10 CONTINUE WRITE(*,*)'Enter the decimal sidereal time' READ(*,*,END=999)STIME IF (STIME .LT. 0.0 .OR. No other values are allowed. It sets the size in bytes of the I/O buffer to use.

ERR If an error occurs whilst closing the file, the program will jump to the statement with the specified label. NAMED The variable is set to .TRUE. FMT The format specifies how the data in the data-transfer-list is to be arranged. The INQUIRE statement has the general form: INQUIRE (inquiry-list) where inquiry-list may be either FILE=fname or UNIT=unum plus any combination of the (possible return values are given as a comment) EXIST=lex

file-name-expr is a scalar CHARACTER expression that evaluates to the name of a file. Note that case sensitivity is system specific. Implied DO loop The simplest way to input or output all the elements of an array is to simply put the unsubscripted array name in the data transfer list. The two statements print *, "The solutions to the equation are : ", x1, x2 write (7,*) "The solutions to the equation are : ", x1, x2 produce exactly the same

Open Statements p.518 Open (unit=10, file='mydata', status='old') status = old, new, unknown You can use a character variable name, for example: character*30 file1 file1= '/home/usr6/mr2020/lab4.data' open (unit=10, file=file1, status='old', readonly) The These numbers must lie in the range 1..99. Possible values are: 'OLD', 'NEW', 'UNKNOWN', or 'SCRATCH'. 'OLD'-- The file already exists (nonexistence is an error). temporary storage of large amounts of intermediate results; large amounts of input or output; output from one program used as the input of another; a set of input data which is

label is the statement label of the statement that is branched to if an error occurs. On OPEN statements and file connection, see your user manual. You cannot execute a BACKSPACE statement on a write-only file. file must exist open(10,status="scratch") !

The program should halt when the number 0 is entered. This statement takes on two slightly different forms. Example: read(10,130,end=300) a,b,c 130 format(3(f7.2,1x)) When the end-of-file, EOF, is encountered, control of the program jumps to line 300. G-format G10,3 chooses between E & F format depending on the size of the number D.

STATUS=sta The STATUS=sta clause is optional. If FORM='FORMATTED', each record is terminated with a newline (\n) character; that is, each record actually has one extra character. As but one example, suppose you want to make the assignments n = 77 , x = 123.45 , y = 67.8 , where n is an