flow and error control techniques pdf Penokee Kansas

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flow and error control techniques pdf Penokee, Kansas

So the time out will occur after the 8 packets, up to that it will not wait for the acknowledgment. Algorithm: Parity bits are positions at the power of two (2 r). Receiver and sender both start sending packets simultaneously, First case is simple and works perfectly, but there will be an error in the second one. Burst Error In term burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit were changed.

University of Education In Go-Back-N ARQ, the size of the sender window must be less than 2m; the size of the receiver window is always 1. Lecture 18 & 19 Roadmap University of Education

  • Understand the Following Topics:
    • Flow and Error Control
    • Stop and Wait
    • Sliding window
    • Stop and Wait ARQ
    • Go Back N ARQ
    • Selective Reject So in PCF quality of service is guaranteed. Checksum generator Sender uses checksum generator mechanism.

      Data-Link layer ensures that an initial connection has been set up, divides output data into data frames, and handles the acknowledgements from a receiver that the data arrived successfully. Sequence of segments is called a fragmentation burst. Privacy policy About Wikibooks Disclaimers Developers Cookie statement Mobile view ERROR The requested URL could not be retrieved The following error was encountered while trying to retrieve the URL: Connection Error Control[edit] Network is responsible for transmission of data from one device to another device.

      Each parity bit will take care of its bits in the code. Parity does have the advantage, however, that it's about the best possible code that uses only a single bit of space. p . (1-p) N-1 . (1-p)N-1 … Choosing optimum p as N --> infinity... = 1 / (2e) = .18 =18% Slotted ALOHA In ALOHA a newly emitted packet can collide If adapter detects another transmission while transmitting, aborts and sends jam signal After aborting, adapter enters exponential backoff: after the mth collision, adapter chooses a K at random from {0,1,2,…,2m-1}.

      This protocol includes Sequence, Acknowledge, and Packet number.It uses full duplex channel so there is two possibilities: Sender first start sending the data and receiver start sending data after it receive Receiver do the same thing in 4th and 5th packet. University of Education Receiver sliding window 31. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.

      CRC is appended to the data unit and is sent to the receiver. So the protocol called Go back N and Selective Repeat were introduced to solve this problem.In this protocol, there are two possibility at the receiver’s end, it may be with large Flow Control[edit] Flow Control is one important design issue for the Data Link Layer that controls the flow of data between sender and receiver. In this Protocol the Sender simply sends data and waits for the acknowledgment from Receiver.

      It handles the data moving in and out across the physical layer. When A wants to transmit a packet to B, first it sends RTS (Request to Send) packet of 30 bytes to B with length L. In the case of window size is one at the receiver, as we can see in the figure (a), if sender wants to send the packet from one to ten but So when the timer expires, the sender retransmits the original frames, 0 to 6 to the receiver.

      ii. Advantages of slotted ALOHA: single active node can continuously transmit at full rate of channel highly decentralized: only slots in nodes need to be in sync simple Disadvantages of slotted ALOHA: This problem is called Exposed Station problem. Protocols that listen for a carrier and act accordingly are called carrier sense protocols.

      The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. Generated Sat, 15 Oct 2016 21:46:14 GMT by s_wx1094 (squid/3.5.20) ERROR The requested URL could not be retrieved The following error was encountered while trying to retrieve the URL: Connection For reliable communication, error must be detected and corrected. When A receives its frame it starts ACK timer.

      In this protocol sender starts it's window size with 0 and grows to some predefined maximum number. This is known as exponential back off. University of Education Sender sliding window 30. Feed back based Flow Control In Feed back based Flow Control, Until sender receives feedback from the receiver, it will not send next data.

      Carrier sensing allows the station to detect whether the medium is currently being used. Taking Turns MAC protocols Polling In Polling, master node invites slave nodes to transmit in nodes. After that MAC layer is explained. Checksum is also on the concept of redundancy.

      If no transmission is taking place at the time, the particular station can transmit. It is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. SlideShare Explore Search You Upload Login Signup Home Technology Education More Topics For Uploaders Get Started Tips & Tricks Tools Flow & Error Control Upcoming SlideShare Loading in …5 × 1 Fragmentation

      • Large block of data may be split into small frames
        • Limited buffer size
        • Errors detected sooner (when whole frame received)
        • On error, retransmission of smaller frames is needed
        • Prevents one

          Your cache administrator is webmaster. It is based on binary division of the data unit, the remainder of which (CRC) is added to the data unit and sent to the receiver. With the error control process, we can be confident that the transmitted and received data are identical. As shown in the figure sender adds redundant bits (R) to the data unit and sends to receiver, when receiver gets bits stream and passes through checking function.

          To deal with this problem of noisy channels, 802.11 allows the frame to be fragmented into smaller fragments. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. But introduces complexity in the stations and bandwidth overhead because of the need for time synchronization. 2. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

          Here, A wants to send a packet to B. Here whoever listens to the CTS packet remains silent for duration of L. Then it is divided by the predefined divisor using binary division technique.