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About the author: Eric Stellwagen is Vice President and Co-founder of Business Forecast Systems, Inc. (BFS) and co-author of the Forecast Pro software product line. It can also convey information when you don’t know the item’s demand volume. Next Steps Watch Quick Tour Download Demo Get Live Web Demo Forecasting 101: A Guide to Forecast Error Measurement Statistics and How to Use Them MAPE is in most cases not suited to compare sales and demand forecasts.

Small wonder considering we’re one of the only leaders in advanced analytics to focus on predictive technologies. Organizations use a tracking signal by setting a target value for each period, such as ±4. Forecast error can be a calendar forecast error or a cross-sectional forecast error, when we want to summarize the forecast error over a group of units. So if Demandplanning reports into the Sales function with an  implicit upward bias in the forecast, then it is appropriate to divide by the Actual Sales to overcome this bias.  Using

Furthermore, when the Actual value is not zero, but quite small, the MAPE will often take on extreme values. The problem is that when you start to summarize MPE for multiple forecasts, the aggregate value doesn’t represent the error rate of the individual MPEs. Here the forecast may be assessed using the difference or using a proportional error. The size of the number reflects the relative amount of bias that it present.

A few of the more important ones are listed below: MAD/Mean Ratio. If Supply Chain is held responsible for inventories alone, then it will create a new bias to underforecast the true sales. This scale sensitivity renders the MAPE close to worthless as an error measure for low-volume data. This calculation ∑ ( | A − F | ) ∑ A {\displaystyle \sum {(|A-F|)} \over \sum {A}} , where A {\displaystyle A} is the actual value and F {\displaystyle F}

Random Variation In terms of measuring errors, random variation is any amount of variation in which the cumulative actual demand equals the cumulative forecast demand. The MAPE The MAPE (Mean Absolute Percent Error) measures the size of the error in percentage terms. Learn more You're viewing YouTube in Russian. Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) There is a drawback to the MAD calculation, in that it is an absolute number that is not meaningful unless compared to the forecast.

The MAD The MAD (Mean Absolute Deviation) measures the size of the error in units. So sMAPE is also used to correct this, it is known as symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error. Measuring Errors Across Multiple Items Measuring forecast error for a single item is pretty straightforward.

If we use forecast as the denominator, the forecaster can improve accuracy marginally by consistently over-forecasting. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ^ J. If you are working with an item which has reasonable demand volume, any of the aforementioned error measurements can be used, and you should select the one that you and your Lets take a look why MAPE is frequently not suited to compare forecasts.

Required fields are marked * Time limit is exhausted. If you are working with a low-volume item then the MAD is a good choice, while the MAPE and other percentage-based statistics should be avoided. A potential problem with this approach is that the lower-volume items (which will usually have higher MAPEs) can dominate the statistic. If you are working with a low-volume item then the MAD is a good choice, while the MAPE and other percentage-based statistics should be avoided.

This installment of Forecasting 101 surveys common error measurement statistics, examines the pros and cons of each and discusses their suitability under a variety of circumstances. Historically Sales groups have been comfortable using forecast as a denominator, given their culture of beating their sales plan. SMAPE. This give you Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD).

In other cases, a forecast may consist of predicted values over a number of lead-times; in this case an assessment of forecast error may need to consider more general ways of Since the MAD is a unit error, calculating an aggregated MAD across multiple items only makes sense when using comparable units. In order to maintain an optimized inventory and effective supply chain, accurate demand forecasts are imperative. For example, sales of 120 over 100 will mean a 120% attainment while the error of 20% will also be expressed as a proportion of their forecast.

Cuzán (2010). "Combining forecasts for predicting U.S. Reference class forecasting has been developed to reduce forecast error. He consults widely in the area of practical business forecasting--spending 20-30 days a year presenting workshops on the subject--and frequently addresses professional groups such as the University of Tennessee’s Sales Forecasting Notice that because "Actual" is in the denominator of the equation, the MAPE is undefined when Actual demand is zero.

The MAPE is scale sensitive and should not be used when working with low-volume data. Calculating an aggregated MAPE is a common practice. Bias is a consistent deviation from the mean in one direction (high or low). A potential problem with this approach is that the lower-volume items (which will usually have higher MAPEs) can dominate the statistic.

Retrieved from "" Categories: Supply chain managementStatistical forecastingDemandHidden categories: Articles to be merged from April 2016All articles to be merged Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Article We arrive at MAPE by dividing the Absolute Error by the forecasted value. These data can be averaged in the usual arithmetic way or with exponential smoothing. Go To: Retail Blogs Healthcare Blogs Retail The Absolute Best Way to Measure Forecast Accuracy September 12, 2016 By Bob Clements The Absolute Best Way to Measure Forecast Accuracy What

As stated previously, percentage errors cannot be calculated when the actual equals zero and can take on extreme values when dealing with low-volume data. You can then review problematic forecasts by their value to your business.