The population can be divided into sampling units in a variety of ways. The use of statistics, however, will help auditors develop sample plans more efficiently and assess sample results more objectively than nonstatistical methods alone. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Your population error rate would change to 6 percent (3/50), making your computed upper deviation rate equal to 8 percent.

It represents the risk that the audit sample is not representative of the population. Sampling may not apply to tests directed toward obtaining evidence about the design or operation of the control environment or the accounting system. APT Financial Consultants SakoÂ Mayrick,Â 2008Â PageÂ 7Â 8. This rate can be determined using a simple statistical table or a manual or computer-generated computation.

Sampling Interval = Population value = Shs.335, 330 Sample size Or = Tolerable error = 10,000,000 Reliability factor 3.0 = 333,330 As noted above, each Shs.1 of population is regarded as Random selection, which ensures that all items in the population have an equal chance of selection, for example, by use of random number tables. Nonsampling risk can be reduced to a negligible level through such factors as adequate planning and supervision and proper conduct of a firm's audit practice (see section 161, The Relationship of The projected population error used for this comparison in the case of substantive procedures is net of adjustments made by the entity.

While there are a number of selection methods, three methods commonly used are set out below. The extent of reliance on the results of the procedure is related to the extent to which other substantive procedures provide audit evidence regarding the same financial statement assertion. This estimate is based on prior experience with the client and is normally expected to be zero when PPS is used. So the computed upper deviation rate is 6 percent (2 percent plus 4 percent).

Etc. Expected size and frequency of misstatements. fn1 This section provides guidance for planning, performing, and evaluating audit samples. .02 The auditor often is aware of account balances and transactions that may be more likely to contain misstatements. most likely misstatement (MLM) - In PPS sampling, the sum of the top-stratum misstatements and the projection of the lower-stratum misstatements.

both those which involve sampling and those which do not. Tolerable misstatement. is working to precision of 5%. When using attribute sampling, the sampling unit is a single record or document.

Mere voiding of a sales order does not alone suggest a weakness in control over credit approval.Based on these procedures, suppose four sales orders lacked appropriate credit approval in the sample The auditor should determine that the population from which he draws the sample is appropriate for the specific audit objective. This risk, which affects audit effectiveness, can be quantified using statistical sampling techniques. This amount has an inverse relationship with sample size. Sample results for tests of controls are evaluated by comparing the sample deviation rate to the tolerable deviation rate and calculating an

Block selection cannot ordinarily be used in audit sampling because most populations are structured such that items in a sequence can be expected to have similar characteristics to each other, but Terms as follows; Precision (as in altribute = Tolerable error Sampling formula above Population value Therefore: Sample size = Reliability factor x population value Tolerable error Sampling interval = Population value The risk of assessing control risk too high is the risk that the assessed level of control risk based on the sample is greater than the true operating effectiveness of the This rate is inversely related to sample size. Sample results are evaluated by comparing the computed maximum population deviation rate to the tolerable deviation rate.

Because either nonstatistical or statistical sampling can provide sufficient evidential matter, the auditor chooses between them after considering their relative cost and effectiveness in the circumstances. Etc. Shs. These attribute evaluation tables require the auditor to know three factors: Risk of assessing control risk too low (see above). Sample Size represents the number of population items tested. Sample Deviations

Assessment of control risk. Consequently, stratification may result in a smaller sample size. SakoÂ Mayrick,Â 2008Â PageÂ 14Â Recommended Strategic Planning Fundamentals Solving Business Problems Competitive Strategy Fundamentals Audit sampling zaur2009 audit sampling notes student Cahpter 2 Audit Sampling Nur Dalila Zamri Auditing sampling presentation Dominic Korkoryi For example, if a positive debtor confirmation has been requested and no reply was received, auditors may be able to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that the debtor is valid by

They can only test what is actually there â€“ tests for understatements are generally carried out at the compliance or attribute sampling stage. Sampling units â€“ Are individual items that make up the population. Risk of over reliance: the risk that, although the sample result supports the auditors' assessment of control risk, the actual compliance rate would not support such an assessment. APT Financial Consultants Some testing procedures do not involve sampling example: Transaction and balances which, though few in number are of great significance in terms of size: e.g.

If either the upper or lower limit on misstatement is greater than tolerable misstatement the auditor will conclude that a material misstatement does exist. Therefore, all items in the population should have an opportunity to be selected. See PCAOB Release No. 2010-004. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

Tolerable error 19. Your email Submit RELATED ARTICLES How Does Attribute Sampling Work? b. The factors considered when determining sample size for substantive tests using a non-statistical approach are: Risk of incorrect acceptance represents the risk that the auditor concludes that a material misstatement does

Assessment of risk for other substantive tests related to the same assertion (including analytical procedures and other relevant substantive tests). This estimate is directly related to sample size. Tolerable Misstatement represents the highest misstatement that could occur before the population would be considered materially misstated. Firm Enforcement About Non-U.S. Tolerable error is considered during the planning stage and, for substantive procedures, is related to the auditors' judgement about materiality.

Additionally, the auditor may need to revise the original inherent risk and control risk assessments based on subsequently performed substantive tests. Statistically based sampling involves the use of techniques from which mathematically constructed conclusions about the population can be drawn. tolerable misstatement - The maximum amount of misstatement the auditor can accept in the population. Allowable risk of incorrect acceptance.

If the maximum population deviation rate is larger than the tolerable deviation rate the auditor will conclude that the design and operation of the internal control is not effective. These amounts are calculated using the following formula: The final step is to calculate the adjusted upper and lower limits on misstatement. For example, confirming recorded receivables cannot be relied on to reveal unrecorded receivables. Smaller misstatements or lower frequency.

These two figures combined are referred to as the computed upper deviation rate.